Sunday, April 26, 2009

Greenville Barcelona

My Band!!!

Highway 61

Highway 61 Revisited: America at the Crossroads, Still
by Steven Laffoley

"Put on some more hippie music," writes a reader, "to reaffirm your idiotic beliefs." His is one of a half dozen email letters I receive, thrown like digital Molotov cocktails through the ethereal e-space onto my computer screen after I wrote an essay about America and Dylan's Like a Rolling Stone.
"WAKE UP!" screams the next message in bold caps, "and who knows, you may someday see the real world and find your place in it." I consider what constitutes the "real world" in modern day America, with little success - until the next letter arrives: "I love watching you liberals consumed by your hatred of [President Bush] a man who is moral and just and right."
And then it hits me: "Real world" America is about blind rage and deep divides.
So I think about the words "moral," "just," and "right" and try to apply them to the President. And I try to understand the letter writer's point of view. But, frankly, I can't. He's right, I guess: I don't live in the "real world" anymore. So I walk away from the computer, pour a glass of wine, and heed the first letter's advice, returning to my "hippie music," travelling again down Dylan's Highway 61 Revisited.
Strangely, as the title song begins to play, I think again of the "real world" and of the real Highway 61, that tar-topped, road-river winding its way through America's heartland, from the Gulf of Mexico to the Canadian Border, dividing America east from west. And it occurs to me that Highway 61 speaks to America's other divides, historic and present - white from black, rich from poor, conservative from liberal. Highway 61 tells the long story of America at the crossroads, sometimes making deals with the devil, sometimes not.
Consider: at one end of Highway 61, near the Canadian boarder, sits Duluth Minnesota, birthplace of Bob Dylan. I imagine the young folk singer, sitting at the mouth of that highway, deep in the woods, soaking up the American history and music that rolls upcountry like deep river water, from Louisiana and Mississippi and Tennessee, finally pooling in the pine woods of Minnesota, a perfect place for the young poet to drink from.
There, Dylan just knew: to travel Highway 61 is to understand America.
Rolling south from Duluth, through red-state farmlands into Tennessee, Highway 61 runs through Memphis, the great crossroads of American music: country and gospel, rhythm and blues - the bubbling witches' brew of Rock and Roll. So too, Memphis is the home of the King, of Elvis - the human crucible of America's divides.
There is Elvis the conservative and Elvis the liberal - at one moment the polite, deferential, southern good ol' boy; the "no, ma'am," "yes, sir" obedient soldier, and at the next moment the rebellious, pelvic thrusting archetype of unbridled sexuality haunting the heart of American conservatism.
Then there is Elvis the racial divining rod. Hear him sing An American Trilogy, his kitsch singsong of Confederate American pride. "I wish I were in the land of cotton." The fat Elvis. The Vegas sellout Elvis. The prescription drug addict Elvis. Elvis as pure white America. And Elvis as pure rich America.
And yet, Elvis is pure black America, and pure poor America, the modern channelling spirit for America's three hundred years of the oppressed and negated poor, singing laments for hope, for peace, for justice, for freedom. His voice intertwines with the other Memphis King, Martin Luther King, Jr., "Free at last, Free at last, Thank God Almighty, We are free at last." "Glory, Glory," sing the Kings, "Hallelujah!" America united on Highway 61.
Of course, the two Kings die, not so far from each other, near Highway 61, casualties of America's worst excesses, casualties of America's deepest divides. Highway 61 calls again, with its rolling, rhythmic story to be told, winding south, through Mississippi, where comes the echoes of countless plantation slaves, working in the heat of the sun to the picking rhythms of "field hollering," the mystic seeds from which grows the Blues, from which grows all America's music and all America's story.
Still moving on, outside Clarksdale, Mississippi, at the junction of Routes 49 and 61, a young, skinny guitar player, Robert Johnson, sells his soul to the devil for talent and fame, for the dark American dream. "I went down to the crossroads and fell down on my knees," sings Johnson perhaps regretting his deal, "asked the Lord up above for mercy, save poor Bob if you please."
A prayer for America at the crossroads, on Highway 61.
Further along that highway, a car driving blues singer Bessie Smith and her lover strikes another, slow moving, car. Bessie's car flips and rolls, crushing Bessie's left arm and ribs. She dies on the way to the hospital. Later, John Hammond, that writer and musical alchemist of America's Highway 61, the man who discovers Bessie Smith and Bob Dylan, writes that Bessie dies when turned away from a White's Only hospital. His facts are wrong. But his words speak truth about America at a crossroads.
All America's blues on Highway 61.
Then finally, after 1400 miles, Highway 61 lands in the Big Easy, New Orleans, birth mother of modern America. If Bob Dylan sits at one end of Highway 61, then Louis Armstrong sits at the other, each a siren of America's story. Hear Armstrong sing Black and Blue and What A Wonderful World, at once speaking of America's dark, irreconcilable divides, and next singing of America's hope, a nation united.
Then again, Highway 61 ends at the New Orleans Superdome, America's forgotten island of the damned and dispossessed, reminding all America that the highway still tells the unrelenting story of rich and poor, white and black, conservative and liberal.
I finish my glass of wine while Dylan sings Desolation Row, the last track on Highway 61 Revisited. And I think again of the angry letters I received. But this time I smile and take comfort in knowing that America has long wrestled with its darkest impulses at the crossroads, at knowing that America sometimes makes a deal with the devil - but also, that sometimes, just sometimes, it doesn't.
Steven Laffoley is an American writer living in Halifax, Nova Scotia. You may e-mail him at or He is the author of Mr. Bush, Angus and Me: Notes of an American-Canadian in the Age of Unreason.

Saturday, April 25, 2009

Twilight in the River Pavilion

I lean on my rustic gate
Above the swift river
In the evening and hear
The distant sound of women
Beating clothes. The little bridge
Arches over the fishes
And turtles. Once in a great while
Someone crosses. A reflection
Appears on the water, then is gone.

--Chiang She Chuan, translated by Kenneth Rexroth

Twilight Comes

Twilight comes over the monastery garden.
Outside the window the trees grow dim in the dusk.
Woodcutters sing coming home across the fields.
The chant of the monks answers from the forest.
Birds come to the dew basins hidden amongst the flowers.
Off through the bamboos someone is playing a flute.
I am still not an old man,
But my heart is set on the life of a hermit.

--Weng Wei, translated by Kenneth Rexroth

Rexroth San Francisco 1965

Rexroth’s San Francisco

The Mafia Invasion of North Beach

Proposals for Chinatown

Bob Dylan

Cowboy Diplomacy

The Strategy of Peace

Wine — French versus Californian

After the Watts Riot

The Quiet Center

Poetry on RecordVoices

Death of a Naturalist--Seamus Heaney 1965

All year the flax-dam festered in the heart
Of the townland; green and heavy headed
Flax had rotted there, weighted down by huge sods.
Daily it sweltered in the punishing sun.
Bubbles gargled delicately, bluebottles
Wove a strong gauze of sound around the smell.
There were dragon-flies, spotted butterflies,
But best of all was the warm thick slobber
Of frogspawn that grew like clotted water
In the shade of the banks. Here, every spring
I would fill jampotfuls of the jellied
Specks to range on window-sills at home,
On shelves at school, and wait and watch until
The fattening dots burst into nimble-
Swimming tadpoles. Miss Walls would tell us how
The daddy frog was called a bullfrog
And how he croaked and how the mammy frog
Laid hundreds of little eggs and this was
Frogspawn. You could tell the weather by frogs too
For they were yellow in the sun and brown
In rain.
Then one hot day when fields were rank
With cowdung in the grass the angry frogs
Invaded the flax-dam; I ducked through hedges
To a coarse croaking that I had not heard
Before. The air was thick with a bass chorus.
Right down the dam gross-bellied frogs were cocked
On sods; their loose necks pulsed like sails. Some hopped:
The slap and plop were obscene threats. Some sat
Poised like mud grenades, their blunt heads farting.
I sickened, turned, and ran. The great slime kings
Were gathered there for vengeance and I knew
That if I dipped my hand the spawn would clutch it.

Thursday, April 23, 2009

Pyramids found on Maurtius

29th March, 2009
Seven pyramids have been identified on the African island of Mauritius. Remarkably, in construction, they are identical to the ones found on the island of Tenerife, an island on the opposite side of the continent. It underlines the likelihood that one civilisation sailed to various islands off the coast of Africa and constructed these structures.

The island of Mauritius is part of the Mascarene Islands and is in the Indian Ocean, about 900 kilometres (560 miles) east of Madagascar. The island is 61 km long and 47 km wide, and sits just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. In origin, it is a volcanic island.The historical record shows that the island was known to Arab and Austronesian sailors as early as the 10th century; Portuguese sailors first visited in 1507. Mauritius was first plotted on a map in 1502, made by the Italian Alberto Cantino. The Arabs called the island Dina Harobi, while the planisphere identifies all three Mascarene islands (Reunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues) and calls them Dina Margabin, Dina Harobi and Dina Morare.It is suspected that prior to the Arabs, Mauritius was known to certain people living on the African shores, as well as the famous Sea Peoples, a confederacy of seafaring raiders, which included the proto-Phoenicians. The Greek account of Periplus relates the story of Hanno (Hannan), the Carthaginian navigator, who lived in the 5th century BC, and who traversed the Straits of Gibraltar at the command of ships that would explore the African coastline along the Atlantic Ocean. Herodotus describes a Phoenician expedition leaving the Red Sea and traversing the “sea of the south”, and, following the orders of the Egyptian Pharaoh Necho II (610-595 BC), entered back into the Mediterranean Sea through the Straits of Gibraltar, which means they circumnavigated Africa.
The seven small pyramids that have been identified are located on the south side of the island, in a plain known as Magnien, between the Indian Ocean and Creole Mountain and Lion Mountain, at 20°26’.8.15”S and 57° 39’2.60”E. Their foundation is rectangular and in height, they do not exceed twelve metres; they have between 6 and 11 terraces. In appearance, they are similar to the pyramids located on another volcanic island off the – western – coast of Africa, Tenerife; similar structures also exist on the Mediterranean island of Sicily, which is also volcanic in origin.There are many parallels between the pyramids of Mauritius and Tenerife. On both island, the pyramids are part of a complex: a series of pyramids grouped together in one location. On both islands, the pyramids are made from lava stone and the construction does not use any mortar or other connecting agent. Some of the structures on Mauritius have been partially dismantled, with the stones remployed nearby. In one coating of basalt rollers, there can be found limestone blocks underneath, no doubt of coral origin.The Tenerife pyramids equally do not surpass 12 metres in height, and detailed photographs of the terracing makes it clear that one cannot distinguish whether one is observing a pyramid on Tenerife or Mauritius. In the case of “Mauritius Pyramid 1”, access to the upper platform is via a central staircase. This has been restored in a whiter stone, and is therefore more visible. Not all pyramids have such an access – again on par with their Tenerife cousins. It suggests that there is a commonality between the two islands that is beyond the coincidental.
Some of the Mauritius pyramids, with their platforms, could have been used for astronomical observations. This too would be on par with Tenerife, specifically at the Guimar complex. If this correlation were to apply to the Mauritius pyramids, these pyramids should be aligned to solar phenomena, and specifically the terraces associated with the pyramids should be aligned to the two solstices. Initial calculations suggest that this is indeed the case, though on-site verification needs to occur. Specifically Mauritius Pyramid 2 is likely to be aligned to the summer solstice (which in the Southern hemisphere occurs on December 21) and one should be able to observe a double sunset. The first sunset would occur behind the Creole Mountain, the second behind the neighbouring Lion Mountain. A double sunset behind a mountainous horizon is also a phenomenon observed at the Guimar complex in Tenerife.

Locally, as Stéphane Mussard experienced, the people claim these pyramids are merely stone piles, thrown together in efforts to clear the fields for growing sugar cane. Even the dismissals are therefore shared with those of Tenerife, where other complexes on the island (e.g. Icod de los Vinos) are equally labelled by locals as the result of farmers clearing their fields from unwanted stones. If this were true, the question is why some of the pyramids on Mauritius still have official panels, dating from the first half of the 20th century, which identifies the site as a protected site of historic interest? Remarkably, however, since, the site has lost its protected status, no doubt the consequence of a change in government (Mauritius was under British rule until 1968). It is clear that those dismissing these pyramids as “piles of stones” are afraid to see their agricultural lands repossessed, or having to conform to certain regulations that come with protected archaeological sites. It is nevertheless clear that with proper help, the government should be able to highlight the economic benefits of tourism to the local economy, which will hopefully result in scientific research carried out on the site.
The man responsible for the identification and promotion of the Guimar complex was Thor Heyerdahl, a pioneering sailor of Norwegian origin, who argued that our distant ancestors were able to navigate the oceans and organised various expeditions to prove his point. Heyerdahl found a pyramid in the Maldives, on Gan. This pyramid was aligned to the sun and measures 8.5 metres in height. It was baptised “Hawittas”. Heyerdahl argued that the Maldives were located on an Eastern maritime trading route that was used by various ancient civilisations, coming from the Middle East.The ancient Egyptians used the Phoenician fleet to carry out expeditions, and it is known that the Phoenicians constructed astronomical temples that were perfectly aligned to the cardinal points and solar phenomena. With the discovery of identical pyramid complexes on Tenerife, Sicily and now Mauritius, it is clear that these are remnants of a seafaring culture, which has left traces on islands on various sides of the African continent.
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All images © Stéphane Mussard.
Antoine Gigal is a French writer and researcher, and the Egyptian correspondent for the French ‘L’Egypte’ magazine.Gigal’s early years were spent in Africa and South America, where her father worked as journalist and diplomat. This has taken her all over the world exploring diverse cultures and civilizations. She studied at Sorbonne Paris III University and the National Institute of Oriental Languages and Civilizations (INALCO), where she graduated in Chinese and Japanese languages and civilizations.Speaking Arabic, Spanish, Italian and French, for the last 20 years, she has lived mainly in Egypt, and calls Paris her second home. Gigal lectures extensively on Egypt and leads several study tours of Egypt every year. Gigal has travelled to even the most remote archaeological areas and is able to gain access to monuments not open to general public. With the eye of an astute detective, Gigal has made a name for herself in France as someone who is able to bring new and first-hand information about the mysteries of ancient Egypt. As such, she is co-founder of Giza For Humanity ( website is
The above article can be reproduced, provided Antoine Gigal is identified as the author, and Histories & Mysteries is credited as the original source. All photographs are copyright Stéphane Mussard, and a copyright reference needs to be inserted as part of their reproduction.

Wednesday, April 22, 2009

Blood relations

MARTIN JOSEPH4 MCELHONE (FELIX3, FELIX2, PHELIM1) was born September 13, 1868 in Dungannon, Co Tyrone, Ireland, and died July 9, 1903 in Dungannon, Co Tyrone, Ireland.

He married MARGARET TIERNEY, daughter of THOMAS TIERNEY and SALLY STEWART.Children of MARTIN MCELHONE and MARGARET TIERNEY are:9. i. FELIX5 MCELHONE, b. September 27, 1898.10. ii.

THOMAS MCELHONE, b. May 23, 1900, Dungannon, Co Tyrone, Ireland; d. November 28, 1965.

McElhone Name

The McElhone Name

The McElhone family may be either Scottish or Irish. It is a matter of heated discussion among family members. What is clear is that the name today is rare in Scotland and relatively common in County Tyrone and County Derry in Northern Ireland. We believe that all the McElhone's now in Northern Ireland are Catholic, but have reason to believe that in the early 1700s there were also Protestant McElhone's there. See Jack's page above for one of our clues. Some places on the Web call the name a rare Irish name, others say it is from Argyll in Scotland. We have not yet found a link from Scotland to Ireland, but we continue to try.

The McElhone Clan

(A history written by John M. McElhone of Goshen and Torrington, CT, some time before 1943. Copyright ©1998 by Jack Sheedy. You may use this document for your personal use but not for distribution, publication or sale without permission.)
Our family's name is not a common one, and yet quite a number bearing this name, scattered over many states, have from time to time come to my notice.
About the family of this name, to which we belong, no clear record is known to me beyond my Grandfather, John McElhone.
What I know of him came down to me largely from my father and Aunt Catherine McAllister, but more particularly from the latter.
In 1897 she visited us in Goshen, and again in 1903 in Torrington. On these occasions I never failed to draw from her all the information I could concerning our ancestors in Northern Ireland.
She was outstanding in appearance, above medium height, stoutly built, with sandy hair,a large head, a broad, high forehead, a strong -- not handsome -- face.
She was a good conversationalist, spoke with authority, and left with me the impression of a very dominant character.
Other sources of information are Mr. James Lattimer, Mr. Bernard Malahan, and a Mr. MacDonald, a Real Estate man of New York City whom I met in 1910.
Grandfather John McElhone was, according to my Father and Aunt Catherine, a native of County Antrim, Ireland, born there in 1792, died in County Derry, Ireland, in 1875 in his 83rd year. He was schooled in Belfast, and for a time, when a young man, was employed there. He had one brother, Thomas, the only other child born to his parents, of whom I know nothing further.
Grandfather McElhone, when quite a young man was married to Kate or Catherine MacNamee; they settled in County Derry in the neighborhood of Draperstown, where 12 children were born to them; Mary, Ellen, James, William, Robert, Catherine, Patrick, Eliza, Alexander, John, Joseph, and Thomas, all of whom grew to manhood and womanhood with the exception of Joseph, who died when an infant, or very young.
Ten of this family emigrated either to the U.S.A. or to Canada. Mary, the oldest girl, remained at home. To whom she was married I do not know. She had one child.
How did Grandfather McElhone support his family?
Aunt Catherine said they had a house and considerable land on which they raised food to eat, and flax for the linen industry. The growing children under the tutelage of their mother, did the work of caring for the crops, and the harvesting and preparing the flax for the market.
When asked, Why didn't your Father help? Was he not able to work? The reply was, yes he did not have a weak joint in his body, but that he was a Surveyor for the Crown and away from home much of the time, and that anyhow, he preferred not to do menial work, but to keep his "boots shining" and live as a gentleman.
James Lattimer, who was born and lived a few miles south of the McElhone place, told us, after making a visit to Northern Ireland a year or two before he died, that he knew or knew of Grandfather well. He said, "You know, your Grandfather was Judge Torrey's Deputy, and the King's Surveyor."
Bernard Malahan said of him that he was a much smarter man than any son he ever reared, and one to whom the neighboring people went for advice. (This related to me personally.)
In 1910 I was introduced to a Mr. MacDonald who had a real estate office in New York. He appeared to be about sixty years old, and a very intelligent man.
When he heard my name, he asked where in Ulster my folks came from. After I told him, he began to tell me a great deal about the History of the Clans and their part in the Government of Northern Ireland. He said, "Your name McElhone and its bearers are from the Clan of Coyle." I remember his saying that General Shield's mother was Elizabeth McElhone.
Now about the Coyles. My Grandfather named one of his sons Alexander, and my Father named one of his sons Alexander, and always called him by the full name, never using any abbreviation. We boys used to call him Al or Alex. When about fourteen years old I asked my Father why he picked such an odd name as Alexander. He replied that it was a family name, and that he named him after his Uncle Alexander, after (Alexander Carson Coyle.)
What connection this has with what Mr. MacDonald told me, I don't know, but it seems like a clue that might be useful in tracing the origin and early history of the family.
The governing class of Northern Ireland for three centuries or more have been the descendants of Scotch Presbyterians, and to some extent, Protestant English, planted there by Great Britain for political and religious purposes. Grandfather McElhone was a Protestant, Presbyterian by faith, and remained one all his life, and was buried in the Black Cross when he died. (This from Aunt Catherine.)
Grandmother MacNamee McElhone was a Catholic and remained one all her life. As the children were born she somehow had them baptized. When growing up, they were sometimes given instructions by a Priest at a Hedge or Wall. This was related to me by Aunt Catherine.
She also said that at times the Priest would visit the home and on such occasions, if Grandfather was there, he would always greet him pleasantly, and that they would often chat together in a friendly manner.
Grandfather McElhone liked to select the names for his children, and in this connection, my Father was born on the 16th of March. When the time came for giving him a name, his mother mentioned something about St. Patrick and his Father said, "Yes, you want him named Patrick, and if that is your wish, he shall be named Patrick."
..............................J. M. McElhone1869 - 1943
"Aunt Catherine McAllister": My mother Marion sent an annotated copy of this history to her nephew, my cousin Malachi Tracy Conway, writing in the margin: "Your great grandfather's sister, I believe she lived in Philadelphia." The woman is a mystery. The only McAllister (or MacAllister) I know of was Sarah Ann McAllister McElhone (1824-1879), wife of Robert McElhone (1822-1899). Robert did have a sister Catherine McElhone, but my notes are sketchy on her: she was born in Ireland, probably in 1834, and died in the U.S. or Canada. I have no death date. She is most likely the Aunt Catherine referred to. (Please hit the Back button to return to the main text.)
Bernard Malahan was a Goshen resident, according to my mother's notes. (Please hit the Back button to return to the main text.)
"Black Cross": My mother put a question mark next to this and wrote, "Can't find out what that is." I have since learned that when a person dies while not in the Catholic Church's good graces, he is not permitted full burial privileges in a Catholic cemetery (in Ireland as well as other places), but his grave is marked with a simple black cross. Since John McElhone (1792-1875) was a Protestant, married to a Catholic, the Church apparently allowed him to be buried in the same cemetery as his wife, but with the black cross to signify he was not part of the mystical body of Christ. (Please hit the Back button to return to the main text.)
More notes to John M. McElhone's history, by his grand-nephew Jack Sheedy, who is a son of Marion Spencer McElhone Sheedy, who was a daughter of Alexander McElhone, who was a brother to the author John M. McElhone: This little history has been distributed, exactly as it appears above, typewritten, to several generations of McElhones, by my mother Marion. Some typed copies do not have the name and birth and death dates at the bottom, others do; at any rate, I know of only two drafts of this history, and they are identical in every respect except for the name and dates at the bottom. To make things a bit clearer, let me append these facts:
His last anecdote about his father's being born near St. Patrick's Day may be essentially true, but the birthdate he gave (March 16) does not agree with a five-generation chart given me by my Aunt Louise McElhone Grimshaw of Staten Island. That chart listed Patrick McElhone's birthday as March 3, 1832, and this is corroborated by other records. According to a History of Goshen, page 352, Patrick was a Civil War veteran, enlisting in the 4th Connecticut Regiment Volunteers on May 15, 1861. He was discharged May 23, 1864. He died April 19, 1886 in Goshen, Connecticut. Some of these facts are available on a Web page of McElhone Civil War Veterans.
Patrick married Margaret Cleary McElhone on November 25, 1866 in Winsted, Connecticut. She was born in County Clare, Ireland on May 11, 1841 and died January 6, 1932 at her Torrington home, according to her obituary in The Torrington Register. Her death certificate listed her occupation as housekeeper. My mother told me that after Patrick's death Margaret rented living quarters from and kept house for Asaph Hall, an astronomer who lived in Goshen and who is credited with discovering the moons of Mars.
The family line has still not been traced further back than Patrick's father, John McElhone (1792-1875), to my knowledge. The mysterious Alexander Carson Coyle, mentioned in the history above, remains an elusive ancestor.

Hey Y´all

All this interesting information.....Just to get you to look at my other blog?? hmmmm we´ll see
Memory Wars
Ciao for now!!!


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Multiverse (disambiguation).

The multiverse (or meta-universe) is the hypothetical set of multiple possible universes (including our universe) that together comprise all of reality. The different universes within the multiverse are sometimes called parallel universes. The structure of the multiverse, the nature of each universe within it and the relationship between the various constituent universes, depend on the specific multiverse hypothesis considered.
Multiverses have been hypothesized in cosmology, physics, astronomy, philosophy, transpersonal psychology and fiction, particularly in science fiction and fantasy. The specific term "multiverse" was coined in 1895 by psychologist William James.[1] In these contexts, parallel universes are also called "alternative universes", "quantum universes", "interpenetrating dimensions", "parallel worlds", "alternative realities", "alternative timelines", etc.

Multiverse hypotheses in physics

[edit] Tegmark's classification
Cosmologist Max Tegmark has provided a taxonomy of universes beyond the familiar observable universe. The levels according to Tegmark's classification are briefly described below.[2][3]

[edit] Level I: Beyond our cosmological horizon
A generic prediction of cosmic inflation is an infinite ergodic universe, which, being infinite, must contain Hubble volumes realizing all initial conditions.
An infinite universe should contain an infinite number of Hubble volumes. All will have the same physical laws and physical constants. However, almost all will be different from our Hubble volume regarding configurations such as how matter is distributed in the volume. But since there are an infinite number of such volumes, then some of these will be very similar or even identical to our own. Thus, far beyond our cosmological horizon, there will eventually be a Hubble volume identical to our own. Tegmark estimates that such an identical volume should be about 10118 meters away.[4]

[edit] Level II: Universes with different physical constants

"Bubble universes", every disk is a bubble universe (Universe 1 to Universe 6 are different bubbles, they have physical constants that are different from our universe), our universe is just one of the bubbles.
In the chaotic inflation theory, a variant of the cosmic inflation theory, the multiverse as a whole is stretching and will continue doing so forever, but some regions of space stop stretching and form distinct bubbles, like gas pockets in a loaf of rising bread. There exists an infinite number of such bubbles which are embryonic level I universes of infinite size. Different bubbles may experience different spontaneous symmetry breaking resulting in different properties such as different physical constants.[4]
This level also include John Archibald Wheeler's oscillatory universe theory and Lee Smolin's fecund universes theory.

[edit] Level III: Many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics
Hugh Everett's many-worlds interpretation (MWI) is one of several mainstream interpretation of quantum mechanics. In brief, one aspect of quantum mechanics is that certain observations cannot be predicted absolutely. Instead, there is range of possible observations each with a different probability. According to the MWI, each of these possible observations correspond to a different universe. Suppose a die is thrown that contains 6 sides and that the result correspond to a quantum mechanics observable. All 6 possible ways the die can fall correspond to 6 different universes. (More correctly, in MWI there is only a single universe but after the "split" into "many worlds" these cannot in general interact.)[5]
Tegmark argues that a level III multiverse does not contain more possibilities in the Hubble volume than a level I-II multiverse. In effect, all the different "worlds" created by "splits" in a level III multiverse with the same physical constants can be found in some Hubble volume in a level I multiverse. Tegmark writes that "The only difference between Level I and Level III is where your doppelgängers reside. In Level I they live elsewhere in good old three-dimensional space. In Level III they live on another quantum branch in infinite-dimensional Hilbert space." Similarly, all level II bubble universes with different physical constants can in effect be found as "worlds" created by "splits" at the moment of spontaneous symmetry breaking in a level III multiverse.[4]

[edit] Level IV: Ultimate Ensemble
The Ultimate Ensemble hypothesis of Tegmark himself. This level considers equally real all universes that can be defined by mathematical structures. This also including those having physical laws different from our observable universe. Tegmark writes that "abstract mathematics is so general that any TOE that is definable in purely formal terms (independent of vague human terminology) is also a mathematical structure. For instance, a TOE involving a set of different types of entities (denoted by words, say) and relations between them (denoted by additional words) is nothing but what mathematicians call a set-theoretical model, and one can generally find a formal system that it is a model of." He argues this "it implies that any conceivable parallel universe theory can be described at Level IV" and "it subsumes all other ensembles, therefore brings closure to the hierarchy of multiverses, and there cannot be say a Level V."[6]
Jürgen Schmidhuber, however, says the "set of mathematical structures" is not even well-defined, and admits only universe representations describable by constructive mathematics, that is, computer programs. He explicitly includes universe representations describable by non-halting programs whose output bits converge after finite time, although the convergence time itself may not be predictable by a halting program, due to Kurt Gödel's limitations.[7][8][9] He also explicitly discusses the more restricted ensemble of quickly computable universes.[10]

[edit] Cyclic theories
Main articles: Cyclic model and Oscillatory universe
In several theories there is a series of infinite, self-sustaining cycles (for example: an eternity of Big Bang-Big crunches).

[edit] String theory
See also: Brane cosmology and String theory landscape
A multiverse has been envisaged within some versions of the 11-dimensional extension of string theory known as M-theory. In one version of M-theory our universe and others are created by collisions between membranes in an 11-dimensional space.

[edit] Anthropic principle
Main article: Anthropic principle
The concept of other universes has been proposed to explain why our universe seems to be fine-tuned for conscious life as we experience it. If there were a large number (possibly infinite) of different physical laws (or fundamental constants) in as many universes, some of these would have laws that were suitable for stars, planets and life to exist. The anthropic principle could then be applied to conclude that we would only consciously exist in those universes which were finely-tuned for our conscious existence. Thus, while the probability might be extremely small that there is life in most of the universes, this scarcity of life-supporting universes does not imply intelligent design as the only explanation of our existence.

[edit] WMAP cold spot
Laura Mersini-Houghton claims that the WMAP cold spot may provide testable empirical evidence for a parallel universe within the multiverse.

[edit] Criticisms

[edit] Non-scientific claims
Critics claim that many of these theories lack empirical testability, and without hard physical evidence are unfalsifiable; outside the methodology of scientific investigation to confirm or disprove.

[edit] Specified complexity
William Dembski, a proponent of intelligent design, criticizes multiverse theories using arguments based on specified complexity.[11]

[edit] Occam's Razor
See also: Kolmogorov Complexity
Critics argue that to postulate usually unobservable universes just to explain our universe seems contrary to Occam's razor.[12][13]
Tegmark answers: "A skeptic worries about all the information necessary to specify all those unseen worlds. But an entire ensemble is often much simpler than one of its members. This principle can be stated more formally using the notion of algorithmic information content. The algorithmic information content in a number is, roughly speaking, the length of the shortest computer program that will produce that number as output. For example, consider the set of all integers. Which is simpler, the whole set or just one number? Naively, you might think that a single number is simpler, but the entire set can be generated by quite a trivial computer program, whereas a single number can be hugely long. Therefore, the whole set is actually simpler. Similarly, the set of all solutions to Einstein's field equations is simpler than a specific solution. The former is described by a few equations, whereas the latter requires the specification of vast amounts of initial data on some hypersurface. The lesson is that complexity increases when we restrict our attention to one particular element in an ensemble, thereby losing the symmetry and simplicity that were inherent in the totality of all the elements taken together. In this sense, the higher-level multiverses are simpler. Going from our universe to the Level I multiverse eliminates the need to specify initial conditions, upgrading to Level II eliminates the need to specify physical constants, and the Level IV multiverse eliminates the need to specify anything at all." He continues "A common feature of all four multiverse levels is that the simplest and arguably most elegant theory involves parallel universes by default. To deny the existence of those universes, one needs to complicate the theory by adding experimentally unsupported processes and ad hoc postulates: finite space, wave function collapse and ontological asymmetry. Our judgment therefore comes down to which we find more wasteful and inelegant: many worlds or many words. Perhaps we will gradually get used to the weird ways of our cosmos and find its strangeness to be part of its charm. "[4]

[edit] Multiverse hypotheses in philosophy and logic

[edit] Modal realism
Possible worlds are a way of explaining probability, hypothetical statements and the like, and some philosophers such as David Lewis believe that all possible worlds exist, and are just as real as the actual world (a position known as modal realism).[14]

[edit] Trans-world identity
A metaphysical issue that crops up in multiverse schema that posit infinite identical copies of any given universe is that of the notion that there can be identical objects in different possible worlds. According to the counterpart theory of David Lewis, the objects should be regarded as similar rather than identical.[15][16]

[edit] Fictional realism
The view that because fictions exist, fictional characters exist as well. There are fictional entities, in the same sense as that in which, setting aside philosophical disputes, there are people, Mondays, numbers and planets.[17][18]

[edit] Multiverse hypotheses in religion and spirituality
Main article: Multiverse (religion)

[edit] Planes of existence
Main article: Plane (metaphysics)
Certain religions and esoteric cosmologies propound the idea of a whole series of subtle emanated planes or worlds.

[edit] Afterlife
Many religions include an afterlife existence in realms, such as heavens and hells, which may be very different from the observable universe.

[edit] Eschatology
See also: End time
Eschatological scenarios may include a new different world after the end time of the current one. For example, Hindu cosmology include the idea of an infinite cycle of births and deaths and an infinite number of universes with each cycle lasting 8.4 billion years.[19]

[edit] Multiverse Hypothesis in fiction
See also: Parallel universe (fiction) and Fictional universe
Fiction by definition does not claim to be a completely accurate description of our observable universe. All fiction could thus be seen as describing different universes. Some genres, such as crime fiction and historical fiction, may describe universes similar to the observable one, while others, such as fantasy, science fiction, and alternate history, may describe ones more different.
Parallel universes in fiction may interact. For example, in science fiction a common plot device is hyperspace which is temporarily entered and used for faster than light travel.
The term 'Multiverse' was used in 1962 by science fiction author Michael Moorcock, though not coined by him (as it had previously been used both by William James in 1895 and by J.C.Powys in his 1955 novel The Brazen Head p.279).

New York Expo 1965

Tuesday, April 21, 2009

Bald Eagle Lake

Bald Eagle Lake
Bald Eagle Lake is located just north of the city of White Bear Lake west of the intersection of Highway 61 and County Road J.
Species Present:

Walleye: above average abundance, average size with some larger fish present

Northern Pike: average abundance, average sizeLargemouth bass: average abundance, variety of sizes present, including some lunkers

Bluegill: above average abundance, average size

Crappie: average abundance, smaller than average size but some larger fish present

Muskellunge: average abundance, average size

Bullhead species: lower than average abundance, larger than average sizeYellow Perch: low abundance, small average size

Monday, April 20, 2009

White Bear Lake

White Bear Lake is a city in Ramsey and Washington counties in the U.S. state of Minnesota. The population was 24,325 at the 2000 census. White Bear Lake lies primarily in Ramsey County.
White Bear Lake is also a lake in Minnesota, one of the largest lakes in the Minneapolis St. Paul metropolitan area. It is named White Bear Lake because of its association to an Dakota legend regarding the appearance of a mahto-medi (white-colored black bear).[3] In addition to the city of White Bear Lake located on the northwest side of the lake, nearby city of Mahtomedi, Minnesota, located on the southeast side of the lake is also named after the lake

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.7 square miles (22.5 km²), of which, 8.2 square miles (21.2 km²) of it is land and 0.5 square miles (1.3 km²) of it (5.870%) is water.
U.S. Highway 61, Ramsey County Highway 96, Minnesota State Highway 96, Interstate 35E, and Interstate 694 are five of the main routes in the city.

[edit] Demographics
As of the census of 2000, there were 24,325 people, 9,618 households, and 6,646 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,974.3 people per square mile (1,148.2/km²). There were 9,813 housing units at an average density of 1,199.9/sq mi (463.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 95.31% White, 1.08% African American, 0.37% Native American, 1.54% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.35% from other races, and 1.31% from two or more races. 1.75% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 9,618 households out of which 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.2% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.9% were non-families. 25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.99.
In the city the population was spread out with 24.8% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, and 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $152,934, and the median income for a family was $160,196. Males had a median income of $141,699 versus $99,797 for females. The per capita income for the city was $111,338. About 3.3% of families and 4.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.5% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over.

[edit] History

The Charles P. Noyes Cottage dates back to the days when White Bear Lake was a resort town.
Some say that White Bear Lake was the object of writer F. Scott Fitzgerald's Winter Dreams, as he describes life in Black Bear Lake, Minnesota. What is not in doubt is that White Bear Lake became a sort of de facto gangster haven during the Prohibition era. Those gangsters in Chicago who felt the need to get out of town until "things cooled off" would frequent White Bear Lake, a fact that is not lost on today's Chamber of Commerce who tout this as a reason to visit.
White Bear Lake High School and Mariner High School merged in 1983 to form White Bear Lake Area High School. There are still two buildings, now the North Campus and South Campus. North Campus (White Bear Lake High School) holds classes for freshman and sophomores while South Campus (the former Mariner High School) holds classes for juniors and seniors. The two buildings have a combined total of about 3,000 students.
The murder of three-year-old Dennis Jurgens in 1965 at the hands of his adoptive mother, Lois Jurgens, was arguably the biggest scandal to hit the town with her conviction in 1987. The story was recounted in Barry Siegel's true crime novel A Death in White Bear Lake.
In 1952, the Lakeshore Players Community Theater was organized. Currently, Lakeshore Players resides in a former church building constructed in 1889, at 4820 Stewart Avenue.
The White Bear Center for the Arts was officially organized on May 16, 1968 and currently resides in the old armory building at 2228 Fourth Street.

Highway 61

U.S. Route 61

U.S. Route 61 is the official designation for a United States highway that runs 1,400 miles (2,300 km) from New Orleans, Louisiana, to the city of Wyoming, Minnesota, generally following the course of the Mississippi River. As of 2004, the highway's northern terminus in Wyoming, Minnesota, is at an intersection with Interstate 35. Prior to 1991, the highway extended north through Duluth, Minnesota to the United States-Canada border near Grand Portage, Minnesota. Its southern terminus in New Orleans is at an intersection with U.S. Highway 90 (Tulane Avenue at South Broad Street), in front of the Orleans Parish Criminal Court.
The route was an important north-south connection in the days before the interstate highway system. Many southerners traveled north along Highway 61 to go to St. Louis, Missouri and St. Paul, Minnesota. The highway was also used in the title of Minnesota-native Bob Dylan's song (and album) "Highway 61 Revisited."
[edit] Louisiana
See also: Airline Highway
U.S. 61 in Louisiana is four-laned from its southern terminus in New Orleans to the Parish (county) Line north of Baton Rouge at Thompson's Creek; the portion of two-lane roadway between Thompson's Creek and St. Francisville is currently (late 2007) being upgraded to four lanes. Northward from St. Francisville, U.S. 61 is four-laned to the Mississippi state line, where the highway continues into Natchez, Mississippi as a four-lane highway.
The section of U.S. 61 from New Orleans to Baton Rouge is known as the Airline Highway. Although the road fronts the Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport and passes near Baton Rouge Metropolitan Airport, the name originally referred to the highway's straight route which contrasted to that of the winding Jefferson Highway, which often paralleled the Mississippi River. Legend has it former Louisiana Gov. Huey P. Long advocated the building of the "airline" highway to provide a quick means from the capitol building in Baton Rouge to the bars and establishments in New Orleans so he could quickly travel between the two. On Airline Highway in Jefferson Parish in 1987, Baton Rouge televangelist Jimmy Swaggart was confronted by rival preacher Marvin Gorman as Swaggart exited a motel with a prostitute. This incident increased the area's reputation as a locale of 'seedy motels'. Partly because of that reputation, the section in Jefferson Parish was later renamed Airline Drive.

[edit] Mississippi
U.S. 61 is divided from the Tennessee state line to U.S. Highway 82 in Leland. The highway south of Vicksburg to Natchez is mostly divided and four-lane; only short sections through Port Gibson need to be upgraded. From Natchez to the Louisiana state line, Highway 61 is now divided and four lanes. The Mississippi Department of Transportation is now upgrading the highway between Vicksburg and Leland to four lanes, beginning with replacement of the dangerously narrow Yazoo River bridge at Redwood in Warren County.
The road is also known as the Blues Highway because it runs through the Mississippi Delta country, which was an important source of blues music. U.S. 61 has been referenced in music by various artists with roots in the region.
The junction of Highway 61 and Highway 49 in Clarksdale is designated as the famous crossroads where, according to legend, Robert Johnson supposedly sold his soul to the Devil in exchange for mastery of the blues. However, there is no proof it is the site. Several miles north is another junction where the two highways diverge again; between the junctions the two highways share the route. It has never been confirmed as the place Johnson meant. If the crossroads in the song was ever anything other than a metaphor, it could have been any intersection in that part of Mississippi, or the world.
Like Route 66 in the Western U.S., the iconic Highway 61 sign is so strongly identified with the Clarksdale area that it is used to market different products and services. U.S. Highway 61 is defined in Mississippi Code Annotated § 65-3-3.

[edit] Tennessee
Highway 61 enters Memphis from Walls, Mississippi as South 3rd St in the southern Memphis area, and then joins I-55 as they cross the Mississippi River to Arkansas.

This section requires expansion.

[edit] Arkansas

This section requires expansion.
Highway 61 runs on the far east border of Arkansas and changes into city streets as it passes through them. In Blytheville, being an example, Highway 61 turns into "North 6th Street". It's the most commonly used and accessible path to Missouri.
[edit] Missouri
See also: Avenue of the Saints
U.S. Route 61 enters Missouri south of Steele. The alignment of the highway is closely followed by Interstate 55 between there and the St. Louis area, with portions of the two highways overlapping. Between Howardville and Sikeston, U.S. 61 overlaps with U.S. Route 62. At Sikeston, U.S. 61 also meets U.S. Route 60. The junction of Highway 61 and Old Route 66 (now Route 100), located in Kirkwood, is referred to locally as "the rock 'n roll crossroads of America". After passing through Cape Girardeau, the highway turns northwest and meets U.S. Route 67. The two highways overlap until separating in the St. Louis area at Ladue, where U.S. 61 meets Interstate 64 and U.S. Route 40 and overlaps with them. While in the St. Louis area, U.S. 61 is on Lindbergh Boulevard.
After meeting I-64 and U.S. 40, the U.S. 61 turns west with them and its overlap with the Avenue of the Saints begins. At Route K, the overlap with I-64 currently ends and at Wentzville, the overlap with U.S. 40 ends when it meets Interstate 70. This intersection will also be the future end of I-64. It continues in a general northwesterly route, meeting U.S. Route 54 at Bowling Green and U.S. Route 36 and Interstate 72 at Hannibal, Missouri, an intersection which is I-72's western terminus. Northwest of Hannibal, US 61 meets U.S. Route 24 and the two overlap until they separate at Taylor. U.S. 61 continues north until near Wayland, where the highway turns east at Route 27 and the overlap with the Avenue of the Saints ends. Shortly before leaving Missouri, U.S. 61 meets U.S. Route 136 and the two overlap until entering Iowa.

[edit] Iowa

The Dubuque-Wisconsin Bridge over the Mississippi River.
U.S. Route 61 enters Iowa overlapped with U.S. Route 136 near Keokuk. They separate in Keokuk and U.S. 61 turns north there and meets U.S. Route 218 in northwestern Keokuk. They overlap for 6 miles (9.7 km), then U.S. 218 turns northwest. U.S. 61 goes north until meeting Iowa Highway 2, then turns east with Iowa 2 to Fort Madison. U.S. 61 then turns northeast and meets U.S. Route 34 in Burlington. The highway goes north and overlaps Iowa Highway 92 from Grandview to Muscatine. At Muscatine, the highway turns east to go towards the Quad Cities. At Davenport, U.S. 61 turns north after meeting U.S. Route 67.
While in Davenport, U.S. Route 61 meets U.S. Route 6 and Interstate 80. After I-80, the highway continues north as a freeway until De Witt, which is where it meets U.S. Route 30. It continues north from there to Dubuque as an expressway except for a freeway section in the Maquoketa area. The highway joins with U.S. Highway 151 about six miles (10 km) south of Dubuque. U.S. 61 and U.S. 151 are joined in Dubuque by U.S. Route 52, which separates in downtown Dubuque. Also in Dubuque, a short connecting highway links U.S. 61, U.S. 151, and U.S. 52 with U.S. Route 20. Together, U.S. 61 and U.S. 151 continue through Dubuque, where they cross the Mississippi River and enter Wisconsin via the Dubuque-Wisconsin Bridge.
The 61 Drive In, one of the few drive-in theaters left in the nation, is located along Highway 61. The theater is located about five miles (8 km) south of Maquoketa, near exit 153 (the Delmar/Lost Nation exit).

[edit] Wisconsin
On the opposite bank of the Mississippi, U.S. 61 and U.S. 151 enter Grant County, Wisconsin. U.S. 151 separates from U.S. 61 at Dickeyville.
In 2004, a new 2-lane Mississippi River Bridge opened in La Crosse, creating a 4-lane highway from downtown La Crosse to the Minnesota state line. The new bridge brings traffic into La Crosse, and is located just south of the old Cass Street Bridge which continues to be used by traffic heading towards Minnesota.

This section requires expansion.

[edit] Minnesota
Main article: U.S. Route 61 in Minnesota
The four-lane highway continues north to La Crescent. U.S. 61 follows the Mississippi River through Southeast Minnesota through the cities of Winona, Red Wing. It crosses the river at Hastings using the Hastings High Bridge and joins U.S. Route 10 before entering St. Paul. Within the city, the route follows I-94 for a short distance, and then follows Mounds Boulevard, East 7th Street, and Arcade Street through the East Side of St. Paul.
120 miles (190 km) of U.S. 61 from La Crescent to Cottage Grove is officially designated the Disabled American Veterans Highway.
The portion of Highway 61 north of Wyoming, Minnesota is now part of the Minnesota State Highway system, bearing the designation Minnesota State Highway 61 since 1991.

[edit] History

This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources (ideally, using inline citations). Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2007)
U.S. 61 once ran 1,714 miles (2,758 km) from New Orleans through Duluth, Minnesota all the way to the Canadian border. The road has been shortened to 1,400 miles (2,300 km) ending now in the city of Wyoming, Minnesota at an intersection with I-35.
The northern section of U.S. 61 in Minnesota was separated when I-35 was constructed, and decommissioned in 1991.

[edit] Mississippi
The section of U.S. Highway 61 in northwestern Mississippi, between the state line and Clarksdale, has received considerable upgrades since 1990, when casinos were legalized by the state. The resulting boom in casino development in Tunica County, coupled with dramatic population and development growth in DeSoto County, has led to relocating portions of the highway and expanding it to a divided four-lane highway.

[edit] Missouri
When it was designated in 1926, U.S. 61 replaced most of Route 9, which had been established in 1922 between Arkansas and Iowa. The only part that did not become part of U.S. 61 was north of Wayland, where U.S. 61 turned east on Route 4, and Route 9 became Route 4B (now Route 81) to the state line. Since then, U.S. 61 has been moved to a shorter route between Jackson and Festus, replacing much of Route 25; the old alignment is now Route 72 and U.S. 67.

[edit] Iowa
Starting in the early 1980s, U.S. Highway 61 between Davenport and Dubuque was rebuilt as a four-lane highway. The first link, a 19-mile (31 km) stretch between Davenport and De Witt, was finished in 1982; a bypass around De Witt, which overlapped U.S. Highway 30, was in use starting in November 1975. Subsequent links were completed to Maquoketa (in 1996) and finally to Dubuque in 1999. When the final link was completed, Dubuque finally had a direct four-lane connection to Interstate 80.
In 1983, two multi-lane one-way routes were designated through Davenport starting at the northern city limits. Southbound traffic used the newly constructed Welcome Way until it merges with Harrison Street just north of 35th Street; northbound traffic use Brady Street (which had been a two-way, four-lane street). Other two-way stretches of the highway through Davenport have four (or more) lanes. Because of a bridge with a low clearance in downtown Davenport, commercial truck drivers are encouraged to take Interstates 80, 74, or 280 to bypass the Quad Cities.
A 7.5-mile (12.1 km) bypass around Muscatine, Iowa was opened in 1984, but other upgrades on the stretch south of Davenport would not happen for another decade. The changes came as follows:
1996 – The completion of a 4-mile (6.4 km), four-lane stretch between Blue Grass and Interstate 280 in Davenport.
November 2000 — A 14-mile (23 km) stretch between Blue Grass and the Muscatine bypass was opened.
May 2001 — A 3-mile (4.8 km) bypass around Blue Grass.
July 2002 — A 7 1/2-mile stretch, from the Muscatine bypass to the southern tip of Muscatine County, just north of Letts.
The final stretch completed a continuous multi-laned link between Dickeyville, Wisconsin south to Letts, Iowa.

[edit] Minnesota
North from the city of Wyoming, Old Highway 61 continues as "Forest Boulevard" in Chisago County, and then either as "County 61" or as Highway 361 through Pine and Carlton counties before ending at Highway 210. The original U.S. 61 had continued east along Highway 210 to Carlton and north on present-day Highway 45 to Scanlon before turning northeast on what is now "County 61 / Old Highway 61" through Esko.
I-35 has replaced the original U.S. 61 descending Thompson Hill into West Duluth, from which most of the city of Duluth, Bob Dylan's home town, can be seen entering town, including the Aerial Lift Bridge and the waterfront. The original U.S. 61 in the city of Duluth had previously followed Cody Street, Grand Avenue, Superior Street, Second Street, Third Street, and London Road.
The original U.S. 61 between Duluth and the Canadian border was designated as Minnesota State Highway 61 in 1991. Minnesota 61, part of the Lake Superior Circle Tour route, follows the North Shore of Lake Superior, where it becomes Ontario Highway 61 upon entering Canada. Highway 61 continues to the city of Thunder Bay, where it ends at an intersection with the Trans-Canada Highway.